DenmarkHuman presence in Denmark dates back to between 110,000 and 130,000 BC, in the Eem interglacial period.  During the Pre-Roman Iron Age (500 BC – AD 1), native groups began migrating south. The Roman provinces maintained trade routes and relations with native Danish tribes, and Roman coins have been found in the region. There is also evidence to suggest that a strong Celtic cultural influence existed in Denmark at this time.

From the 8th to the 10th century, the Danes were at the heart of the Viking culture. Together with the Norwegians and the Swedes, they raided much of Europe, although the Danish Vikings were most active in England and France (in the latter of which they established Normandy).

The 17th century brought the start of approximately 250 years of warfare with Sweden. Skåneland was lost to Sweden in the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658 and the Denmark-Norway union was dissolved by the Treaty of Kiel in 1814, when Norway entered a new union with Sweden. Denmark kept the colonies of Iceland, Faroe Islands and Greenland. Apart from the Nordic colonies, Denmark ruled over the Tranquebar region of India from 1620 to 1869, the Danish Gold Coast (Ghana) from 1658 to 1850, and the Danish West Indies (the United States Virgin Islands) from 1671 to 1917.

The Danish liberal and national movement gained momentum in the 1830s and, following the European Revolutions of 1848, Denmark finally became a constitutional monarchy on 5 June 1849.
After the Second War of Schleswig in 1864, Denmark was forced to cede Schleswig-Holstein to Prussia, in a defeat that left a deep impression on the Danish national identity. After this point Denmark adopted a policy of neutrality, which it would maintain throughout World War I.

Despite its continued neutrality, Denmark was invaded by Germany on 9 April 1940. Though accorded self-rule (which ended in 23 August 1943 because of a mounting resistance movement which agitating the German military leadership), Denmark remained militarily occupied throughout the Second World War. Danish sympathy for the Allied cause was generally strong, but economical cooperation between Germany and Denmark continued throughout the war.

In 1944, 1,900 Danish police officers were arrested by the Gestapo and sent to the concentration camp Buchenwald, from which many never returned alive. During the war, Iceland claimed independence and in 1948 the Faroe Islands gained home rule. After the war, Denmark became one of the founding members of the United Nations and NATO and, in 1973, joined the European Economic Community (later, the European Union).

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